General data :

Official Name : Republic of Chad.

Type of government : Republic.

Head of state : Idriss Déby Itno, President of the Republic.

Geographic data :

Area: 1 284000 km2

Capital : N'Djamena.

Main cities : N'Djamena, Abeche, Moundou, Sahr.

Language (s) official (s) : French, Arabic.

Language (s) Current (s) : French, Chadian Arabic.

Currency : CFA (100 CFA francs = 0.15euro).

National Day : 11 August (declaration of independence).


Demographics data ;

Population : 11.5 million hab (BM, 2011)

Density : 8.9 inhabitants / km2

Life expectancy : 49.5 years (BM 2011).

Adult literacy rate (15 and over) : 26% (UNDP)

Adult literacy rate (15 and over) : 26% (UNDP)

Religions : Islam (55%), Christianity and animism (45%).

Human Development Index: 183rd out of 187 countries (UNDP,


Chad is a country rich in traditions. The different ethnic groups contribute significantly to this wealth. Aboriginal live through music and dance. In this place, one can find different crafts depending in the region in which you are. Local traditional ceremonies vary in colours: statues, objects and masks have their meaning.



To the north, Chad (which covers more than twice the size of France) extends over the southern Sahara, partly mountainous and volcanic (Tibesti), sparsely populated area of transhumant livestock (cattle, sheep and goats). The population mainly juxtaposes blacks and Arabs. Today, it is mostly partly dominated by the Muslims. More than half of them are concentrated in the valleys of the Chari and Logone (millet, groundnuts, and cotton). The landlocked country without internal transportation is dependent on international aid (led by France). Oil is exploited in the south (Doba).


The natural environment

Le millieu naturelChad covers the eastern part of Chad sedimentary basin, with the topographic base at 155m altitude in the Djourab, and whose relief in the north of the 13th parallel is especially dune. The northern borders are formed and old massive sandstone or crystalline, sometimes surmounted by volcanic units which culminate in Tibesti (Emi Koussi, 3415 m). To the south lie the vast floodplains of the Chari basin and low trays (the Koros) that belong to the Central Ridge. The climate is hot and dry. Rainfall decreases from the south (1200 mm) to the north (50 mm), where agriculture is only possible in the oases. The rivers are perennial in the South, where the Logone-Chari feeds the Lake Chad. The vegetation changes from open forest to savannah and spiny shrub, and pseudo-steppe or steppe grasses; is sparse and temporary in the desert area.




The population and the economy


In the south lives the Sudanese (Saras, Massas, Mundangs, Toupouris), peasants and sedentary farmers, animists or Christians; in the north are the Islamized (Kotokos, Ouaddaïens, Kanembous) and Arabs, very dispersed. The desert is the field of Tedas Dazas and nomads. The recurring civil war since independence altered this distribution and the major facts of recent years is undoubtedly the cause of the migration and settlement of the Islamised and "Arabs" in the west and the south. The two main causes of these migrations are drought of the 1970s and the seizure of power by the "Yankees" from 1982. This was followed by the development of Islam, which is practiced today by more than half of the population, and colloquial Arabic, the lingua role increases. Almost half of the population is settled in the Southwest, Chari and the valley Logone

In a state without any real apparatus apart of the military, statistical data, where available, have little sense. So we must be contented with estimates about everything related to people and the economy. This uncertainty in figures does not question the perception of certain realities like: the low average population density, its uneven distribution between the areas of agriculture and livestock, increasing urbanization but moderate balance of rural activities. The unrest led to the carry away of food crops, diversified enough among which we note a clear increase in cassava and yams alongside traditional millet and sorghum. Shifting cultivation of millet provided basic food: millet N. 12th parallel, storm or flood-recession sorghum in the south, Cassava is in rapid progress in the south; food crop, peanuts stagnating. Rice in flood zones, wheat in the polders of Lake Chad occupies a secondary place and corn and beans. Fishing on Lake Chad and on the Chari River is active and provides an essential protein intake. The Sahelian zone concentrates a significant proportion of herds of cattle and sheep and goat farmers whose derive only limited benefit, and the climate requires a seasonal transhumance. The cotton crop once imposed by the colonizer has experienced some recovery after collapsing. All these productions are undergoing unofficial trade which is growing in borders with Central African Republic, Cameroon and especially Nigeria, which offers in return oil and manufactured products. They refute the chances of an embryonic industry, already endangered by insecurity.


Since time immemorial, Chad exploits the soda (sodium carbonate) of Lake Chad, which is an essential salt treatment for flocks in a vast region that extends far beyond the country's borders. It also has uranium deposits in the north, currently unusable because of the world situation. The industrial sector, very modest (food, cotton processing), was largely disorganized. War, isolation and insufficient domestic transport (the country has no railways), the drought of 1970-1980 explain the economic stagnation of the country, dependent on international aid (France at the top). However, since 2003 the operation of the Doba oilfield (300 wells) in the south of the country was supposed to bring significant resources. Transportation by pipeline to Cameroon's Kribi coastline, Chadian oil (250,000 barrels per day) represents an estimated potential of twenty-five years of production.