Lake Chad


Cartographic Study

Lake Chad is vast and extensive, with water surrounded in the northwest by a line of dunes, and the north-east and south by low plains.

Lake Chad is located in less than 2000 km2 presently as compared to 25 000 km2 before 1973. Climate variability combined water intake in this area.

Although the northern basin of the Lake has floods again since 1998, after it was totally drained in 1976, most of the flow of the waters in Lake Chad is today found in the southern basin.

A mapping study was conducted in 2011 in the southern basin by LCBC. The aim of this cartographic study was to bring together basic elements, land use units for a complete mapping of Lake Chad while taking into account the northern basin.




As for methodology, it was conducted by encoding of lands of units identified, then the spatial sampling of localities and three Landsat images (2009) taken at different periods or dates were used in mosaic from a grid (0.5 ° x 0.5 °), The application of this method help to rectify the whole aspect of the basin based on the encoding and GPS points revealed in each identified unit.



The study showed 65 unites of land occupation and records the GPS. These, before it was been spatial into an image, it was composed of the following: villages, mosaics crops, grasslands, rangelands, invasive plants, open water, sand deposits and forests.

Three types of vegetation dominated the southern basin :

  1. Timber: : Accacia sieberiana, Prosopis juliflora;
  2. Aquatic Species: Vossia Cuspidata, Phragmites australis;
  3. Herbaceous carpet mainly Panicum repens.

The vegetation remains dominant (70%) than other elements such as sand banks (19%) and open water (11%).